Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve most of the times associated with raised intraocular pressure and results in gradual painless loss of vision. It is called ‘the silent thief of sight’. Optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that carries visual images or signals from the eyes to the brain. In general, a clear fluid called aqueous humor circulates through the eye and then drains out through a mesh-like channel (trabecular meshwork). In glaucoma, there is resistance to outflow of aqueous through trabecular meshwork resulting in increase in intraocular pressure. This causes damage to the optic nerve resulting in loss of vision.

Types of glaucoma:

  1. Open angle glaucoma
  2. Angle closure glaucoma
  3. Secondary glaucoma

Diagnostic tests:

  • Tonometry to measure intraocular pressure
  • Gonioscopy to evaluate the angle
  • Perimetry or visual field analysis
  • Optical coherence tomography for optic nerve fiber analysis
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM)

Treatment:

Medical management forms the mainstay of glaucoma management and most of the glaucoma can be managed by currently available medications like beta blockers, Pg analogues etc.

Other modes of management include lasers like YAG Peripheral iridotomy, SLT, ALT etc.

Conditions and Treatments

  • Lasers – Yag Laser
  • Peripheral Iridotomy
  • SLT (Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty)
  • Glaucoma Surgeries
  • Pterygium
  • Lid Tear